Making 3D Skyboxes

A Tutorial for Team Fortress 2

How to make 3D skyboxes

### Introduction: This tutorial will explain how to make a 3-D skybox in TF2 using Hammer. A 3-D skybox basically makes it look like there is some world outside of your map, in other words, it give the map a realistic feel. This tutorial is sort of advanced, so if you're really new to Hammer and SDK, I would suggest looking at the beginners tutorials to get acquainted with Hammer, first. ### Step 1: Okay, to start off, take any map that you want. (I just made a new map for this tutorial). Usually the only place you see the 3-D skybox is in the main part of the map, where all the walls and ceilings are textured the skybox texture. ### Step 2: The entity that actually makes it into a 3-D skybox is "sky\_camera". So click the entity tool, scroll down to "sky\_camera", and place it right in the center of the grid (Use the magnification tool, and keep right-clicking on the top and side grids until it's all the way zoomed out, and where the teal lines intersect is the exact middle). ### Step 3: Note that Hammer enlarges the 3-D skybox 16 times when you are actually playing the map, so depending on how large you want the skybox to be, the only way to compensate for that it to make the bulk of your map smaller to judge the size. Highlight a few key parts of your map (usually the main or middle part), push Control+c or right click on them in the grid view and click copy to copy the parts, and paste them anywhere, and to re-size them so they are the same compared to the skybox, click control+M, or go to tools, transform. Since we want to re-size this, On the right, where it says "mode", bubble in "scale", and 1/16 of an object in decimals is .0625, so go ahead and write that on all of the fields (X, Y, and Z) and push "okay". ### Step 4: Now it's time to actually make the skybox. So, anywhere you want, make a medium sized hollow box (again it depends on how big your map is compared to how big you want the skybox to be) and make all textures except the ground the 3-D skybox texture, tools/toolsskybox. ### Step 5: If you remember, we made a sky\_camera. Highlight the sky\_camera and copy it (control+C), and then paste it into your 3D skybox...box (control+V), but don't forget to delete the first one, or you'll get an error when compiling your map. ### Step 6: Now it's time to decorate. Click the entity tool, and scroll down to prop\_dynamic. Open it's properties up by right clicking on it in the grid view and going to properties, or double-clicking it in 3D view, and click world model, then browse. A green model-browsing menu should have popped up. On the upper left, highlight MDL Files, and on the bottom where it says "filter", type in skybox. You can use any one of these props, and you can actually make the props with brushes. Here's my map, if you want to take a look, . I didn't really spend too much time on the skybox, but if you do, it looks really nice. Hope the tut helped. ~[DuH]The Magic Muffin Burglar
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  • Noobberry avatar
    Noobberry username pic Joined 12y ago
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    This is seriously hard to read..
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    Mantra
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  • Logan Dougall avatar
    Logan Dougall username pic Joined 13y ago
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    Logan Dougall avatar
    Logan Dougall
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    Wall of text = unreadable. Break it up into steps, highlight the important areas so its legible and clear. For people trying to follow along they would lose their place switching back and forth between hammer and this tutorial.
    ÜberStylers {...} ~/clubs/1947
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  • Muffin Burglar avatar
    Muffin Burglar Joined 10y ago
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    Posted by YoYoDude Nice job, one tutorial for this I actually understand :-) But, where does the "sky_camera" entity go in the box? The middle or just anywhere in it?
    If you want the skybox completely level with your geometry, you'll need to extend the walls downward, put a skybox textured floor under the regular textured floor, carve a hole inside of the regular textured brush (make a smaller brush, overlap it with the first one, and push Control+Shift+C) AND THEN put the sky camera level with the rest of the ground (kind of hard to explain lol).
    No, you.
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  • YoYoDude avatar
    YoYoDude Joined 10y ago
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    Nice job, one tutorial for this I actually understand :-) But, where does the "sky_camera" entity go in the box? The middle or just anywhere in it?
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  • VVolf avatar
    VVolf Joined 10y ago
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    Nice tutorial. It's not the first one that talks about 3D Skyboxes, but it always confuse people. This one is clear, in my opinion. I see that you have to be a little bit advanced in Hammer to understand this tutorial, has you use some term that some people maybe don't know. Nice tut. Useful.
    You just got Wolfned
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Muffin Burglar Joined 10y ago
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