Advanced Material Editing Guide Part II

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Updates

organization and udpated information
  • Smash Forge tutorial removed (see Part I)
  • updated information
  • more modern workflow involving Forge soon
  • Material Inject tutorial moved to Part I
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1. Introduction

In this tutorial I'll be covering more advanced techniques for material editing that I’ve learned from personal testing and the Smash 4 Modding discord. First, I would recommend reading Part I. As I learn more techniques and information, I will be editing this guide. If you have questions or additional information about the topics discussed in this tutorial, please feel free to leave a comment or message me. I’m occasionally found in the Smash 4 Modding Discord as well.

This tutorial makes use of the more advanced material inject scripts by Ploaj. If you have not done so already, download material inject. These scripts enable you to make more advanced edits than the other material editing script. Ploaj's Material Inject Script Download.

The first section explains the values in the model_out.txt. In addition, I cover some information about textures that is necessary for material editing. The second section covers the process of injecting new materials. I recommend having extract.raw from the nut create scripts. Smash Forge can be used to quickly find the texture names from nut files as well. The third section covers example techniques.

2. Understanding the Material Flags WIP


The flag determines the properties of the material, such as what effects are applied, how many textures are used, etc. 

The flags are split into groups of values called bytes. Each byte of the flag determines different material properties. I've linked the pastebin containing information on many of the values. Not all of the values are understood, but you don't need most of the values. 

The flags can be edited in Forge in the "Flags" text box or using Material Inject. 

2.1. Material Type

The material type controls what kind of material is used. Different materials use different properties and effects. Material type E is used for some water materials. Material type B uses textures and NU_ values unique to effects. Material type D is used for item materials and often uses diffuse blending. Material types 9 and A are the most common and share most material properties. Material type F is only used for Bayonetta and Ryu and allows for some unique material effects.  

4- ???
9- Characters/Trophies
A- Stages
B- Effects
D- Items/Trophies (and Ike)
E- Environment
F- Bayo/Ryu

2.2. Lighting Channels WIP


This value controls the lighting of the model. The specifics are not well known, but you have two main options : predefined lighting based on vertex color and other values or lighting based on the stage. 

Prebaked Lighting with Vertex Color
Values of 2 and 4 are common values for materials that use vertex color. The lighting channels from left to right in the above image are 1,2,4. The stage is yellow by default, but the textured color is multiplied by the vertex color to make it blue. Vertex color is usually constant throughout the model for characters, so this can be used for flat lighting.  Game and Watch, for example, uses this method. 

Stage Influenced Lighting - a,c

This is the default value for most character models. The lighting will appear different on different stages. Unless you have specific reasons not to, use these values for your character models. A value of C is required to use NU_colorGain, NU_colorOffset, and NU_specularColorGain. 

2.3. Byte 2 WIP

You won't need to usually edit this byte. It does allow you to control certain effects. A common value for characters is 01 (Light_Set fog). You can disable this effect by setting the second byte to 00. Byte 2 has an effect on shading and how textures are used. I'm currently researching this more.

2.4. Byte 3 WIP

This controls various texture properties, such as MTA and multiple UV channels. For the most part, this value is left at 10 (no material animations). If you want to use material animations, the value will be 11.

2.5. Byte 4

The fourth byte is one of the key values that you will be editing. This value determines what textures are used. This byte also controls shadows and certain other effects. The fourth byte is the most important for determining how to structure the texturing section and thus what DDS files you need to include. The list below covers almost all of the possible values for the 4th byte and the corresponding textures.

Any of the dummy textures can be replaced with a texture from the model.nut. Dummy textures are always available to be used with any model, but can't be used for model specific effects. If you replace a dummy texture, make sure the UV Wrap mode is correct (covered later in guide).

4th Byte Textures and Effects List
00 = No Diffuse
01 = Diffuse + No Shadows
03 = Diffuse + Normal Map + No Shadows
05 = Diffuse + Cubemap + No Shadows
07 = Diffuse + Cubemap + Normal Map + No Shadows
09 = Diffuse + Diffuse/AO Map + No Shadows
0D = Diffuse + Cubemap + Diffuse/AO Map + No Shadows
11 = Diffuse + Sphere Map + No Shadows
21 =Diffuse + Ramp + Shadows
41 = Diffuse + Shadows
43 = Diffuse + Normal Map + Shadows
45 = Diffuse + Cubemap + Shadows
47 = Diffuse +Cubemap + Normal Map + Shadows
49 = Diffuse + Diffuse/AO Map + Shadows
4D = Diffuse + Cubemap + AO Mapping + Shadows
61 = Diffuse + Ramp + Shadow
63 = Diffuse + Normal Map + Ramp+ Shadows
65 = Diffuse + Diffuse + Ramp + Ramp + Shadow
67 = Diffuse + Normal Map + Ramp + Ramp + Shadows
69 = Diffuse + Stage Cubemap + Ramp + Shadow
6B = Diffuse + Stage Cubemap + Normal Map + Ramp + Shadow
73 = Diffuse + Sphere Map + Normal Map + Ramp
81 = Diffuse + Glow

Fourth Byte Values Explained (WIP)

The values for the 4th byte can be confusing, especially in hexadecimal. The flags are all in hex in both Material Inject and Smash Forge. A byte consists of 8 bits. Each byte can have a value of 0 or 1. The fourth byte has 8 bits, meaning that there are eight values than can be either 0 or 1. Each bit enables or disables a texture or material effect.  The reflection map is some sort of projection texture used with NU_reflectionColor for Rosalina's stars and the highlights on the lips of some characters.

A fourth byte of 6B in hex (metal.nud), for example, would be 01101011 in binary. This means the material has no glow, shadows, a dummy ramp, no reflection map, a stage cubemap, no cubemap from the model.nut, a normal/ao map, and a diffuse map. Forge will display the proper textures based on the fourth byte hex value. These flag values are the most well understood and importing for material editing, so keep these values in mind when editing your mods.

3. Transparency WIP

The material flags control the calculations for transparency and blending. There is little reason to use Material Inject to edit these values, so I'll only be covering Forge. In the "Material Flags" tab of the material editor in Forge you can find the relevant values: SrcFactor, DstFactor, REF1, REF0, and Draw Priority.

3.1. Alpha Blending


Smash 4 uses a common technique called alpha blending  for transparency. Alpha blending uses an alpha value to blend two colors together to give the appearance of clear surfaces. 

Alpha blending uses source and destination values. These are the two colors that will be blended together. Different functions can be used to blend the colors in different ways. The colors can be added, subtracted, multiplied, etc. The alpha controls the amount of blending used.

3.1.1. DstFactor (Destination Factor) WIP

The DstFactor refers to the destination color. This is the color that is already in the buffer, meaning the color has already been rendered. This is the "background" color, but the color may not be in the background of the scene. This is why draw order is important when calculating alpha blending. The destination color is the "background" because it is drawn first.

Values (for Forge)
0: Nothing
1: SourceAlpha
2: One
4: Dummy

3.1.2. SrcFactor (Source Factor) WIP

The SrcFactor refers to the source color, which is the foreground color to be blended with the background. The source color is drawn after the destination color, meaning it will appear to be in front. The blend mode of the source color controls how the source color is added to the background color.

Values (for Forge)
0: Nothing
1: SourceAlpha
3: SourceAlpha
4: RasterAlpha
5: SourceAlpha
7: SourceAlpha
50: SourceAlpha
51: SourceAlpha

3.2. Alpha Testing 

3.2.1. Overview

Alpha testing is another way of rendering transparent objects. When rendering a leaf, it is more efficient to use a textured plane rather than complex geometry. The alpha channel is used to "cut out" the shape of the leaf from the plane. For many objects, such as leaves or cutouts, the alpha channel is either 0 or 1. During rendering, the geometry is converted to fragments through rasterization. Each pixel on screen will have at least 1 fragment, containing information about the geometry, color, and other information. Fragments can be discarded (not rendered) if the fragment would be fully transparent anyway.

3.2.2. Alpha Testing

Ref1 enables or disables alpha testing. 0 is disabled and 2 is enabled. You can use alpha testing for transparency without needing alpha blending.

3.2.3. AlphaFunc

The alpha function affects when fragments pass the alpha test. Values of 4 and 6 mean the fragment fails the test and is discarded if the alpha is less than or equal to the Ref Alpha. A value of 0 means fragments never pass, and the object will be invisible.

3.2.4. Ref Alpha

This value is used as the reference value for the alpha function comparison. This is an integer value, meaning that values will be between 0 and 255. A value of 128, for example, would discard fragments with an alpha less than or equal to 0.5. A value of 0 will have no effect.

3.3. Face Culling


Face culling is used to increase rendering performance. Faces that won't be visible don't need to be rendered. You can choose between two culling modes in Smash Forge in the first tab of the material editor. "Cull None" disables culling for that mesh. "Cull Inside" culls the inside of the mesh, meaning that the backside of faces won't be rendered. If you were to look from inside a mesh or look at the back side of a single sided cape, for example, you would see nothing. Use "Cull Inside" unless you want to be able to see both sides of a single sided mesh.

4. Textures

4.1. Texture Types WIP

This section covers almost all of the types of textures used for models in Smash 4. This does not include effects or other more obscure textures. Textures are used when a single NU_ value for the entire model is not sufficient. I recommend familiarizing yourself with how these textures work. 

4.1.1. Diffuse Map

Diffuse textures control the base color of the model used with diffuse lighting. Almost all materials will have a diffuse textures. Save as DXT1 if you don't have an alpha channel or DXT5 if you do have an alpha channel. The alpha channel can be used for transparency or reflectivity. 

4.1.2. Normal Map

You can use tangent space normal maps to change the normal vector of the model. These textures are usually mostly blue (0.5, 0.5, 1 in RGB). This creates more detailed shading without actually increasing polygon counts. You can learn more in the Normas/AO Guide. These textures should be saved as DXT5 with mipmaps.

4.1.3. Ambient Occlusion Map

Ambient occlusion maps are multiplied by the diffuse map color. For characters, AO maps are stored in the alpha channel of the normal map. Some stages use separate AO textures. AOMinGain can be used to control the contrast and blending of the AO map. You can learn more in the Normas/AO Guide. 

4.1.4. Ramp Textures


The ramp texture is a gradient used to control the diffuse shading of a model. Most materials use a dummy ramp (Tex ID 10080000), which is a solid white texture. These textures are normally in the ABGR8888 format. If you are using Smash Forge's nut editor, use DXT1 or import a png.  

Diffuse Ramps
Skin ramps are used for some characters and are the most common ramp used for materials with fourth byte 67. The skin ramp is a white>red>black gradient. Skin ramps and the dummy ramp both function the same way. The diffuse lighting is remapped using the ramp color. 

The effect of the ramp is added to the base color, so ramps can never make an object black.  Due to the way ramps work, they can be used to approximate skin shading or create a cel shading effect. The softer the transitions between colors in the ramp, the less "cel shaded" it will look. The above example shows ramp shading in Smash Forge showing the cel-shading of Little Mac's wireframe alts.

Specular Ramps
Bayonetta's hair uses a color ramp for specular shading. I haven't seen any other models in game use one. Materials that use specular color ramps have no NU_specularColor, so the color of the specular highlight is controlled entirely by the ramp. The specular is simply remapped using the ramp, rather than added to the existing contribution, unlike diffuse ramps.

4.1.5. Sphere Maps


These textures are like cubemaps, in that they don't use the model's UV coordinates, but the calculations are very different. The U and V coordinates used to sample the texture are based on the model's surface normals relative to the camera. You can think of it like a spherical environment map, but projected from the camera. Due to the way the math works, spheres will appear to have a flat, motionless projection. Flat planes will look very different when viewed from different angles. This can be used for shimmering effects or simple environment reflections. Rosalina's stars and the reflections in Sonic's eyes use these textures. The intensity and color can be controlled with NU_reflectionColor. The model's UV coordinates are not used for these textures. Other textures in the material will use regular UV coordinates.  More reading on how this technique works can be found here in the "Spherical Mapping with Normals" section.

4.1.6. Cubemaps

Cubemaps are used to simulate environment reflections, usually for metals and water. The cubemap texture contains a different image for each side of the cube (a total of 6). A reflection vector is calculated based on the viewing direction and the model's surface normal to determine what face needs to be sampled and then what part of the texture to use. Cubemap reflections can be controlled with NU_reflectionColor and NU_reflectionParams. The model's UV coordinates are not used for these textures.

4.2. Texture IDs Explained


The material data is used by the game to select the appropriate DDS files and how to interpret them. The last number determines what texture it is, beginning with 0. The naming for the texture files corresponds to the textures opened in Smash Forge or extracted with the scripts for nut_create. Note that Forge will only display the texture ID in hex because the wrap mode and other settings are separate.

The default texture naming conventions prevent conflicts when loading textures. As long as the same texture ID in the model.nut file is referenced in the model.nud, the textures will work, however. The values themselves don't determine what the texture does; they simply prevent the same texture being loaded on different models by mistake. It's best to match the game's naming conventions to avoid conflicts. Texture ID's are in hexadecimal, so values are 00-FF instead of 0-255.

4.2.1. Tex ID "Fixing"

There are many scripts to change Tex IDs so textures will not conflict with other textures loaded during a match. When the model.nut is Tex ID'd, bytes 1-3 are changed to match the specified texture type, character ID, and costume ID. Tex ID scripts for the model.nud change bytes 1-3 of the texture IDs listed in the materials. This is useful for using skins on extra slots and preventing conflicts. Note that this will not fix byte 4 of the texture ID, which still needs to be identical in the model.nut and model.nud for textures to be loaded properly.

4.2.2. Byte 1 - Texture Type

The first byte of the texture ID is based on what the texture is used for. 20 is for stages, 30 is for trophies, and 40 is for fighters.

4.2.3. Byte 2 Character ID

The second byte is based on the character. You can find the value by opening a default nut in Smash Forge or with some versions of NUT create.

4.2.4. Byte 3 Costume ID (slot number)

The third byte is for what costume slot the mod goes over. You can use any value from 00-FF (c00-c255).

4.2.5. Byte 4 Texture ID

The fourth byte is the texture number. The values can range from 00-FF (0-255). Only the fourth byte should be different for each DDS file in the nut. 

4.3. UV Wrap Mode

The first four numbers of the next section are the UV wrap mode for that texture. Each texture can have its own wrap mode, including dummy textures. The UV wrap mode controls whether the textures are mirrored, tiled, constricted to the 0-1 space, etc. There are two values for each texture, corresponding to the U and V wrap modes, respectively. In UV space, the U axis is the horizontal axis, and the V axis is the vertical axis. In Smash Forge, the labels are X and Y.

There are 3 UV wrap modes: repeat (10), mirror (20), and clamp(30). An example for a texture in just the 0-1 space would be "1010...." to set the texture to clamp U clamp V. If the UVs and texture ID are correct, you can try changing the wrap mode to fix textures not appearing in the correct place.

4.4. Dummy Textures WIP


Dummy textures are used in most materials. Unlike regular textures, dummy textures are not found in the model.nut. You can find the dummy textures in data>shader>dummy.nut. Many of the flags use dummy textures in place of DDS files from the model.nut. The same dummy textures are used everywhere, so I wouldn't recommend trying to edit the dummy.nut. Dummy textures can be replaced with textures in the model.nut. This usually isn't necessary, but can create some interesting effects.

4.4.1. Dummy Texture IDs

Texture ID Error
10000001
Seems to be the solid red texture loaded when the Tex ID's in the nud are incorrect.

Diffuse Ramp
10080000 -white ramp
This texture controls the diffuse shading of an object. You can replace this texture ID with a ramp from the model.nut to quickly create a cel shaded look.

Cubemaps
These dummy textures reference the Texture IDs in the refection_cubemap.nut in the stage's render folder.

10102000 = low resolution stabe cubemap
10101000 = high resolution stage cubemap

Unknown
10000007, 10000008

5. NU_ Values - Material Parameters

NU_colorSamplerUV, fresnelColor, etc
This section contains all of the material values that you can edit. I cover most of these values in Part 1 of this guide. These values can be edited with Smash Forge or any of the material edit scripts. You can find more about these values in Part I of this guide.

6. Injecting New Materials

A character's default materials only allow you to do so much with the appearance of the model. You can inject any material from any of the characters on any model to expand the effects you can create. 

6.1. MaterialInject

  1. To inject or swap materials, you first need to determine what textures go with which polygon groups. Smash Forge enables you to quickly preview a textured model to see the texture names in hex. 
  2. Open the model_out.txt containing the material you wish to use. Alternatively, you can open the materials in Smash Forge.
  3. Copy the material hash up through UV color sampler. This contains all of the parameters for the material. Different characters use different materials, so you may want to use material information from multiple characters. 
  4. Match the flag with the flag of the source material. This ensures the material loads the proper textures and has the proper effects.
  5. Match the texture ID's in the model_out or texture list in Smash Forge to the textures of the source material. Typically this involves a diffuse (color texture), normal map, and dummy textures. Make sure the texture ID's match the model.nut. If you miss any textures or name them incorrectly, the model will have lighting issues or appear red (missing texture).
  6. Save changes to the model_out and inject the nud. In Smash Forge, the changes are saved automatically, so just save the nud file.

6.2. Smash Forge

6.2.1. Material Presets


When adding a completely new material, it's best to start with a preset. This is necessary for model imports, but can be used for recolors as well. Right click a polygon, select "Edit Material," click "Load Preset." I'll be covering the character mats, but there are stage presets as well.

6.2.2. Copying Materials

In more current versions of Smash Forge, you can quickly copy materials between meshes. Right click the polygon and select "Copy Material." Check all the meshes you want the material to be copied to and click "Ok." If you try to copy a material onto itself, Forge will crash.

7. Material Injection for Model Imports


Model imports will have extremely basic material data when the NUD files are exported. If your model has "lighting issues" or is "too bright," this is most likely not a texture problem. The default materials generated by the scripts make the model appear much brighter than you would expect. Material injection, combined with the proper textures in your NUT file, allow you to add any of the materials used for the default characters.

In the above example, the default model appears way to bright in game. After creating the necessary textures to use a cel shading material, the imported model appears correctly in game. The skin used for this example is Mallow over Zelda by Epicwazy.

7.1. Texture Creation

The default material just uses a diffuse texture. If you want to use a new material, you will first have to add the appropriate texture files to your model.nut. In this example, the cel shading material (covered in examples section) uses a diffuse map, normal/ao map, gradient texture, and dummy texture. The textures contained in the model.nut are printed below.

  1. 402dc801 (diffuse map - facial expressions)
  2. 402dc802 (diffuse map - main texture)
  3. 402dc803 (normal/ao map)
  4. 402dc804 (cel shading ramp)

The textures need to be named properly in hex. In this case, the texture are for Zelda with a Tex ID of 50. The texture 402dc801.DDS, for example, would be Tex ID 64 (fighter), Tex ID 45 (Zelda), Tex ID 200 (slot 50), and texture 1. When you Tex ID the NUT files, the bytes corresponding to Tex ID are changed for all the DDS files in the NUT. When you Tex ID the NUD file, the texture Id's are updated for the materials.

The original model.nut file contained only the diffuse maps. I created a normal/ao map and gradient and then resized and named the DDS files correctly. 

8. Forge Material Presets


The texture ID's depend on your model.nut file and will need to be fixed after using a preset. This list is by no means comprehensive, but it should give you a helpful starting point. If you do not have these presets, you may need to redownload Forge from the Github page. Be sure to download the release and not the source code!

The example images have been modified slightly from the original material data. The textures are unique to the specific model.nut, so the overall look of the material will vary dramatically.

8.1. Beginners Material

The beginners material is for simply fixing brightness issues when model importing. If you only have a diffuse texture and just want your model to look "correct" in game, use this preset. This material also has fresnelColor, which may need to be reduced for darker models.

8.1.1. Example Material for Material Inject

Flags: 94010161 0 0 405
Texture0: 4047003c 1010302 0
Texture1: 10080000 3030302 0
NU_colorSamplerUV 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelColor 255.0 255.0 255.0 255.0 
NU_blinkColor 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_aoMinGain 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_lightMapColorOffset 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelParams 255.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_alphaBlendParams 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_materialHash ee538f65 0 0 0 


8.2. Standard Nrm Map

This is a pretty standard material that can be used for most situations. Use this material if you have a normal/ambient occlusion map.  This material can also work well for adding textured hair to characters such as Corrin, Bayo, etc. You will need to add the appropriate textures to the nut, however.

8.2.1. Example Material for Material Inject

Flags: 9a013063 0 0 405
Texture0: 4047000b 1010302 0
Texture1: 4022ca00 1010302 0
Texture2: 10080000 3030302 0
NU_colorSamplerUV 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelColor 255.0 255.0 255.0 255.0 
NU_fresnelParams 255.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_lightMapColorOffset 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_specularParams 0.0 2040.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_specularColor 255.0 255.0 255.0 255.0 
NU_aoMinGain 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_blinkColor 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_alphaBlendParams 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_materialHash 275e14a6 0 0 0 

8.3. Skin Ramp


Most of the human characters in Smash 4 use a very similar material for simulating skin. Textures control the overall color of the skin and simulate finer details through ambient occlusion and normal maps. Specular and fresnel reflections give the skin a somewhat realistic sheen. This material is pretty standard apart from its use of a ramp texture.

This material can be used for skin shading. The ramp texture should be a white -> red -> black gradient texture for regular skin shading. The specular params exponent is very low to create a softer shading. 

8.3.1. Example Material for Material Inject

Flags: 9a211067 0 0 405
Texture0: 40470009 1010302 0
Texture1: 402f0014 1010302 0
Texture2: 402f0017 3030302 0
Texture3: 10080000 1010302 0
NU_colorSamplerUV 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_lightMapColorOffset 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_specularParams 0.0 204.0 255.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelParams 765.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelColor 255.0 255.0 255.0 255.0
NU_specularColor 228.99 176.76501 157.77411 255.0
NU_aoMinGain 86.954994 38.82541 33.477673 0.0
NU_blinkColor 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_alphaBlendParams 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_materialHash a9984999 0 0 0 

8.4. Metal Nud

This material is used for the metal.nud of all fighters. The reflections are very intense, so I recommend using a very dark (almost black) diffuse map. Unlike the Ganon Armor preset, this does not contain specularColor. The Metal Nud preset is nearly identical to the Nano Metal preset (Metal Nud is less saturated).

8.4.1. Example Material for Material Inject

Flags: 9601106b 0 0 405
Texture0: 40470012 1010302 0
Texture1: 10102000 3030302 0
Texture2: 40000004 1010302 0
Texture3: 10080000 3030302 0
NU_colorSamplerUV 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelColor 153.0 153.0 153.0 255.0 
NU_blinkColor 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_reflectionColor 765.0 765.0 765.0 255.0 
NU_aoMinGain 76.5 76.5 76.5 255.0 
NU_lightMapColorOffset 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelParams 943.5 0.0 0.0 255.0 
NU_alphaBlendParams 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_materialHash 8e0f3799 0 0 0 

8.5. Metal Ganon Armor

This material taken from Ganondorf can be used for metallic models that have a diffuse, normal, and AO map. This material uses the lower detailed stage cubemap and specular color to give a "metallic" look. This material is unlikely to make your model too bright because the values are quite low.

8.5.1. Example Material for Material Inject

Flags: 9801106b 0 0 405
Texture0: 40470010 1010302 0
Texture1: 10101000 3030302 0
Texture2: 40080008 1010302 0
Texture3: 10080000 1010302 0
NU_colorSamplerUV 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelColor 255.0 255.0 255.0 765.0
NU_blinkColor 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_specularColor 163.46155 163.46155 163.46155 255.0
NU_reflectionColor 179.8077 179.8077 179.8077 0.0
NU_aoMinGain 0.0 0.0 0.0 51.0
NU_lightMapColorOffset 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_specularParams 0.0 25500.0 255.0 0.0
NU_fresnelParams 1402.5 0.0 0.0 0.0
NU_alphaBlendParams 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_materialHash 7e2f2686 0 0 0 

8.6. Metal Reflectivity Map Mat


This is one of the more interesting materials in that it uses a reflectivity map. Otherwise, the material is mostly identical to the Ganon Armor material preset in Smash Forge. This material is useful for combining different kinds of materials into one mesh. Note that you won't be using alpha channels for transparency with this mat.

The alpha channel of your diffuse map will be used as the reflectivity map. The reflectivity map will be multiplied by NU_reflectionColor. For example, an alpha of black will mean no reflection. An alpha of white will be full reflection. The alpha channel of the diffuse is used to only add metallic reflections to certain areas, the armor of the Ganon Sheik skin, for example. The other textures are used normally.

8.6.1. Example Material for Material Inject

Flags: f882006b 0 0 405
Texture0: 40480016 1030302 0
Texture1: 10102000 3030302 0
Texture2: 40480017 1030302 0
Texture3: 10080000 1030302 0
NU_colorSamplerUV 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelColor 255.0 255.0 255.0 255.0 
NU_blinkColor 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_specularColor 306.0 306.0 306.0 510.0 
NU_reflectionColor 1275.0 1275.0 1275.0 765.0 
NU_aoMinGain 0.0 0.0 0.0 76.5 
NU_lightMapColorOffset 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_specularParams 0.0 12750.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelParams 255.0 0.0 0.0 255.0 
NU_alphaBlendParams 0.0 255.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_materialHash 6dc61b3d 0 0 0 


8.7. Cel-Shade


Cel shading is a technique that simplifies the shading of a character to be solid colors. In Smash 4, cel shading is accomplished by a combination of material and texture edits. The material information is printed below.

8.7.1. Example Material for Material Inject

Flags: 9a211067 0 0 405
Texture0: 40470010 1010302 0
Texture1: 4000fc01 1010302 0
Texture2: 4000fc11 3030302 0
Texture3: 10080000 3030302 0
NU_colorSamplerUV 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelColor 0.0 0.0 0.0 255.0 
NU_blinkColor 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_specularColor 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_aoMinGain 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_lightMapColorOffset 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_specularParams 0.0 1275.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelParams 255.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_alphaBlendParams 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_materialHash 33faff82 0 0 0 


This cel shaded material is modified from the material for Rosalina's face. A similar effect can be achieved with many of the skin materials. Often for cel shading, there are no reflections. This is why most of the values are zero. You will also want to remove detail from the ambient occlusion and normal maps. Cel shading a skin with detailed textures is counterproductive.

8.8. Material Colored Hair

This preset is from Roy's hair, so you'll have to change the values to create colors other than red. Keep in mind that only the luminance of the diffuse map is used, so don't bother with colored textures. This material also uses anisotropic highlights.

8.8.1. Example Material for Material Inject

Flags: 9c611061 1 10000 405
Texture0: 4047003c 1010302 0
Texture1: 10080000 1010302 0
NU_colorSamplerUV 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelColor 147.11539 70.75865 57.72884 0.0 
NU_blinkColor 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_specularColor 235.38461 98.84739 83.42746 0.0 
NU_specularColorGain 117.692314 22.34664 22.34664 0.0 
NU_aoMinGain 0.0 0.0 0.0 153.0 
NU_lightMapColorOffset 94.8077 94.8077 94.8077 0.0 
NU_reflectionParams 0.0 0.0 102.0 15.299999 
NU_colorGain 213.18001 75.89208 80.46836 0.0 
NU_colorOffset 32.692303 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelParams 1275.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_alphaBlendParams 0.0 255.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_materialHash 43966c33 0 0 0 


8.9. Satin Material

The satin material uses reflectionParams instead of specularParams to control the specular highlights. Use this material for textured hair or certain fabrics that would benefit from an anisotropic highlight. 

8.9.1. Example Material for Material Inject

Flags: 9c011063 0 0 405
Texture0: 4047000b 1010302 0
Texture1: 402ffc01 1010302 0
Texture2: 10080000 1010302 0
NU_colorSamplerUV 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_lightMapColorOffset 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_reflectionParams 170.0 170.0 170.0 178.5 
NU_fresnelParams 255.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelColor 248.0 248.0 248.0 382.5 
NU_specularColor 192.0 192.0 192.0 255.0 
NU_aoMinGain 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_blinkColor 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_alphaBlendParams 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_materialHash 53aae7b9 0 0 0 


8.10. Sm4sh 64 Look

This material is very simple and doesn't use any of the more advanced shading effects in Smash 4. Use this material for retro models.

8.10.1. Example Material for Material Inject

Flags: 92021001 4 0 405
Texture0: 40470009 1010302 0
NU_colorSamplerUV 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_blinkColor 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_alphaBlendParams 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_materialHash 7fcd9f11 0 0 0 

8.11. JoeTE Glow

Most material will glow if they are bright enough because of bloom. Bloom is a common post processing effect in games that blurs highlights to create a "glow" effect. Apart from very high values, this material is pretty standard.

8.11.1. Example Material for Material Inject

Flags: 96015069 0 0 405
Texture0: 40470012 1020302 0
Texture1: 10101000 3030302 0
Texture2: 10080000 1030302 0
NU_colorSamplerUV 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelColor 255.0 255.0 255.0 255.0 
NU_blinkColor 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_reflectionColor 2550.0 2550.0 2550.0 621.1545 
NU_aoMinGain 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_lightMapColorOffset 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelParams 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_alphaBlendParams 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_materialHash 56f7e3ba 0 0 0 

8.12. Bayo Hair Spec Ramp

This material is used just for Bayonetta's hair. The first texture is the diffuse map, but the texture is used very differently than normal. The red channel is the diffuse texture, and the blue channel is a specular map. I'm still researching the green channel. The second texture is a specular ramp, which you can read more about in the textures section. The single channel for diffuse means that you can only have greyscale values between 0-255. The use of color gain and color offset allow you to have different colors.

8.12.1. Example Material for Material Inject

Flags: fc420161 1 10204 800405
Texture0: 40470010 1010302 0
Texture1: 40480030 1010302 0
Texture2: 10080000 1010302 0
NU_colorSamplerUV 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelColor 102.0 103.700005 127.5 255.0 
NU_blinkColor 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_aoMinGain 0.0 0.0 0.0 76.5 
NU_lightMapColorOffset 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_reflectionParams 0.0 0.0 76.5 255.0 
NU_colorGain 164.22 169.57501 170.08499 0.0 
NU_colorOffset 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelParams 255.0 0.0 0.0 255.0 
NU_alphaBlendParams 0.0 255.0 765.0 127.5 
NU_materialHash 5bcc75ea 0 0 0 

8.13. Transparency Example I


Transparent mods, such as Shadow Mario or Glass Yoshi both make use of material injection to create the transparent effect. The material data for the main polygon group of transparent Luma is printed below.

8.13.1. Example Material

TexProp#0----------------------------------------
Flags: 9809106b 1 10000 405
Texture0: 40224806 3030302 0
Texture1: 10101000 3030302 0
Texture2: 40224814 3030302 0
Texture3: 10080000 3030302 0
NU_colorSamplerUV 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelColor 255.0 255.0 255.0 255.0 
NU_blinkColor 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_specularColor 127.5 127.5 127.5 255.0 
NU_reflectionColor 255.0 255.0 255.0 255.0 
NU_aoMinGain 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_lightMapColorOffset 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_specularParams 0.0 2550.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelParams 2550.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_alphaBlendParams 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_materialHash b1114e91 0 0 0 

Of the few transparent skins I have seen, all use this same material.  The strange texture artifacts are unavoidable, to the best of my knowledge/ I don't know of many transparent objects in game. 

8.13.2. Textures

  1. Diffuse (color)
  2. dummy texture
  3. normals/ao
  4. dummy ramp

You will have to add transparency to all of your diffuse textures using nut create. Add an alpha channel and save in the dxt5 format. Play around with the transparency until it looks correct.

8.14. Transparency Example II


The visor for Olimar's helmet works differently than the material used in the above example. Printed below is the visor material applied to one of Luma's models. The bright glow is an effect not related to material editing.

8.14.1. Example Material

TexProp#0-----------------------------------------
Flags: 9801906b 5 20000 405
Texture0: 4022481a 3010302 0
Texture1: 10101000 3030302 0
Texture2: 40224812 3010302 0
Texture3: 10080000 3010302 0
NU_colorSamplerUV 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelColor 153.0 153.0 153.0 0.0 
NU_specularColor 76.5 76.5 76.5 255.0 
NU_reflectionColor 255.0 255.0 255.0 255.0 
NU_aoMinGain 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_lightMapColorOffset 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_specularParams 0.0 25500.0 255.0 0.0 
NU_fresnelParams 1275.0 0.0 0.0 255.0 
NU_alphaBlendParams 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_materialHash 2a1a764a 0 0 0 

8.14.2. Textures

This material uses a very dark diffuse texture (I use the metal diffuse in the example). You won't run into the same texture artifacts, as well. The fresnel and specular reflections can be adjusted to better match clear materials. I'm not very familiar with this material, so I'll need to research it more.

  1. diffuse (very dark)
  2. dummy texture
  3. normal map
  4. dummy ramp

9. Misc Materials

9.1. Textured Hair (Corrin, Bayonetta, Robin, etc) WIP


Some characters, such as Corrin, use just material editing for determining hair color. This limits you to solid colors for hair. With material injection, it is possible to use a different material with a diffuse map (color texture). In this example I used Link's hair material. The material information (Link's hair material) for male Corrin's hair polygons is printed below.

9.1.1. Textures

The textures for most hair materials are relatively straightforward. The issue, however, is that Corrin does not have normal maps or diffuse maps for the hair. I converted the two grey hair textures, both in the DXT5 format) to the diffuse map and normal map, respectively. I then used the names of these textures in the material information. This means when you now edit these textures, the color of the hair will be affected. This will work for any character, but the textures will be easier to change for some characters than others.

  1. diffuse (not present in original model.nut)
  2. normal map (not present in original model.nut)
  3. dummy ramp

9.2. Game & Watch Outlines


Game & Watch uses two models to create the solid color outlines. The first model has regular normals. The outline model is larger, has inverted normals, and comes after the main color model. The flags use vertex lighting to make the model appear "flat". There are also very few material parameters. If you don't have inverted normals, or the correct flags, the two meshes will not render correctly.

9.2.1. Example Material for Material Inject

sphere_inner
TexProp#0-------------------------------------
Flags: 92021001 0 0 405
Texture0: 40220001 1010302 0
NU_colorSamplerUV 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_blinkColor 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_alphaBlendParams 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_materialHash 7fcd9f11 0 0 0 
sphere_outer_flipped_normals
TexProp#0------------------------------------
Flags: 92021001 1 1000 405
Texture0: 40220005 1020302 0
NU_colorSamplerUV 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_blinkColor 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_alphaBlendParams 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_materialHash 617f574 0 0 0 


9.2.2. Textures

  1. diffuse

The textures for these materials are very simple. The first texture is the main color texture for the model. You don't have to use a solid color like the above example, however.

9.3. Sphere Map Material

This material uses a sphere map and a normal map. The material is taken from a trophy model, but it will work for characters as well. Use this material if you need a camera based environment map for creating special material effects.

9.3.1. Example Material

TexProp#0---------------------------------------------
Flags: 9a411073 0 0 405
Texture0: 4fcd0015 3030302 0
Texture1: 4fcd0014 1010302 0
Texture2: 4fcd000b 3030302 0
Texture3: 10080000 3030302 0
NU_colorSamplerUV 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_reflectionParams 0.0 0.0 25.5 255.0 
NU_blinkColor 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_specularColor 255.0 255.0 255.0 255.0 
NU_reflectionColor 255.0 255.0 255.0 0.0 
NU_aoMinGain 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_lightMapColorOffset 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_specularParams 0.0 3825.0 0.0 0.0 
NU_materialHash 68500868 0 0 0


9.3.2. Textures

  1. diffuse
  2. sphere map
  3. normal map
  4. dummy ramp

The textures for this material are identical to the metal NUD material, but the cubemap is replaced with a sphere map. In the textures section of this guide, I cover how sphere maps work.

10. Conclusion

This concludes my two part material editing guide. This guide will be updated pretty erratically as I learn more about Smash 4 materials. If you have specific questions, the #help section of the Smash 4 modding discord is a great place to start. If you still have questions, you can PM me on Gamebanana. I'm in the Smash 4 Modding discord, as well.

Todos

alpha blending research
dummy textures
glow materials
pictures for remaining example materials

Posts

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  • 3mo
    ScandanavianMountainGoat avatar
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    I'll be working to update both this guide and the original material editing guide. This tutorial will be more of an extension of the previous guide rather than entirely different techniques. I may also be adding a basic overview of how shading works in game to allow people to better understand how to make proper material edits.
    SM4SH Texturing & Shading
  • 4mo
    ScandanavianMountainGoat avatar
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    More research is being done on materials/lighting. The information will most likely be posted separately when finalized. Game accurate renders using current material research is a WIP. This guide has enough information for the vast majority of mods, thankfully.

    There are now rendering tutorials applying material research for 3ds Max and Blender Cycles.
    SM4SH Texturing & Shading
  • 7mo
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    Posted by ScandanavianMountainGoat

    Posted by LuckyJero

    Posted by ScandanavianMountainGoat

    Posted by LuckyJero

    So I tried this with Palutena hair material by using the flag of Link's hair material and change the textures color - works all just fine, BUT the transparency on the end of her hair (near her face) looks "edgy".

    pic:


    It seems like that she is loosing her strands of hair because of it.

    Any way to prevent it? I saved it as DXT5 with transparency. Could possibly color the transparency with the but in that case she will loose her strands of hair completely.
    The flags should be using the alpha channel of the diffuse map for transparency. You need to edit the alpha channel for the texture and save as DXT5. There should be an alpha channel in the default nut (black and white texture). It also may be that the alpha channel isnt very clean.
    I fixed the Alpha via PS and saved it back as functional DXT5.

    I used Link's hair flags for Palutena's hair. (Because why not.) This was my mistake.

    What flag should I use for Palutena's hair instead?

    Help appreciated!
    The flags are correct then. It's probably more of a texture issue. 

    If its not a problem for you, you can try Palutena's hair too?

    At the moment, I am way to unsatisfied with the results on Palutena, sadly. D:
    ScizorLover
  • 7mo
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    Posted by LuckyJero

    Posted by ScandanavianMountainGoat

    Posted by LuckyJero

    So I tried this with Palutena hair material by using the flag of Link's hair material and change the textures color - works all just fine, BUT the transparency on the end of her hair (near her face) looks "edgy".

    pic:


    It seems like that she is loosing her strands of hair because of it.

    Any way to prevent it? I saved it as DXT5 with transparency. Could possibly color the transparency with the but in that case she will loose her strands of hair completely.
    The flags should be using the alpha channel of the diffuse map for transparency. You need to edit the alpha channel for the texture and save as DXT5. There should be an alpha channel in the default nut (black and white texture). It also may be that the alpha channel isnt very clean.
    I fixed the Alpha via PS and saved it back as functional DXT5.

    I used Link's hair flags for Palutena's hair. (Because why not.) This was my mistake.

    What flag should I use for Palutena's hair instead?

    Help appreciated!
    The flags are correct then. It's probably more of a texture issue. 
    • Interesting x 1
    SM4SH Texturing & Shading
  • 7mo
    LuckyJero avatar
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    Member Joined 1y
    Posted by ScandanavianMountainGoat

    Posted by LuckyJero

    So I tried this with Palutena hair material by using the flag of Link's hair material and change the textures color - works all just fine, BUT the transparency on the end of her hair (near her face) looks "edgy".

    pic:


    It seems like that she is loosing her strands of hair because of it.

    Any way to prevent it? I saved it as DXT5 with transparency. Could possibly color the transparency with the but in that case she will loose her strands of hair completely.
    The flags should be using the alpha channel of the diffuse map for transparency. You need to edit the alpha channel for the texture and save as DXT5. There should be an alpha channel in the default nut (black and white texture). It also may be that the alpha channel isnt very clean.
    I fixed the Alpha via PS and saved it back as functional DXT5.

    I used Link's hair flags for Palutena's hair. (Because why not.) This was my mistake.

    What flag should I use for Palutena's hair instead?

    Help appreciated!
    ScizorLover
  • 7mo
    ScandanavianMountainGoat avatar
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    Posted by LuckyJero

    So I tried this with Palutena hair material by using the flag of Link's hair material and change the textures color - works all just fine, BUT the transparency on the end of her hair (near her face) looks "edgy".

    pic:


    It seems like that she is loosing her strands of hair because of it.

    Any way to prevent it? I saved it as DXT5 with transparency. Could possibly color the transparency with the but in that case she will loose her strands of hair completely.
    The flags should be using the alpha channel of the diffuse map for transparency. You need to edit the alpha channel for the texture and save as DXT5. There should be an alpha channel in the default nut (black and white texture). It also may be that the alpha channel isnt very clean.
    SM4SH Texturing & Shading
  • 7mo
    LuckyJero avatar
    LuckyJero avatar Offline
    Member Joined 1y
    So I tried this with Palutena hair material by using the flag of Link's hair material and change the textures color - works all just fine, BUT the transparency on the end of her hair (near her face) looks "edgy".

    pic:


    It seems like that she is loosing her strands of hair because of it.

    Any way to prevent it? I saved it as DXT5 with transparency. Could possibly color the transparency with the but in that case she will loose her strands of hair completely.
    ScizorLover
  • 7mo
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    Posted by cshamilton

    For some reason it won't let me reply directly to your post, but IT WORKED

    Just did some messing around with Surface Normals and THAT'S IT!

    It looks like I'll have to manually direct them, but at least I finally know where the issue is!

    THANK YOU SO MUCH WISE GURU OF MATERIAL EDITING
    This has nothing to do with materials but glad I could be of help :)
    SM4SH Texturing & Shading
  • 7mo
    For some reason it won't let me reply directly to your post, but IT WORKED

    Just did some messing around with Surface Normals and THAT'S IT!

    It looks like I'll have to manually direct them, but at least I finally know where the issue is!

    THANK YOU SO MUCH WISE GURU OF MATERIAL EDITING
    Bananite
  • 7mo
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    Posted by cshamilton

    I've got myself a little predicament.

    My model appears hollow/transparent. It's as if only textures behind the first face are viewable.

    I've tried many different types of transparency flags and the NUT definitely seems to be working fine.I've even tried manually setting the vertex alpha's to 255 by modifying the dope.csv creation script.Nothing seems to be working.

    Do you have any ideas as to what could be causing the issue?
    Other people have had this issue with model imports. I would check the surface normals. It may be a culling issue, which you can fix with forge, but I doubt it.
    SM4SH Texturing & Shading
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